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  Book III: Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans
Title  (PDF: 121 K)
COINTELPRO: The FBI's Covert Action Programs Against American Citizens  (PDF: 5931 K)
I. Introduction and Summary
A. "Counterintelligence Program": A Misnomer...
B. Who Were the Targets?
C. What Were the Purposes of COINTELPRO?
D. What Techniques Were Used?
E. Legal Restrictions Were Ignored
F. Command and Control
G. Termination
II. The Five Domestic Programs
A. Origins
B. The Programs
III. The Goals of COINTELPRO: Preventing or Disrupting the Exercise...
A. Efforts to Prevent Speaking
B. Efforts to Prevent Teaching
C. Efforts to Prevent Writing and Publishing
D. Efforts to Prevent Meeting
A. Propaganda
B. Efforts to Promote Enmity and Factionalism Within Groups or Between Group
C. Using Hostile Third Parties Against Target Groups
D. Disseminating Derogatory Information to Family, Friends, and Associates
E. Contacts with Employers
F. Use and Abuse of Government Processes
G. Exposing "Communist Infiltration" of Groups
V. Command and Control: The Problem of Oversight
A. Within the Bureau
B. Outside the Bureau: 1956--1971
C. Outside the Bureau: Post--1971
VI. Epilogue
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Case Study  (PDF: 8346 K)
I. Introduction
II. The Cominfil Investigation
III. Concern Increases in the FBI and the Kennedy Administration...
A. The Justice Department Warns Dr. King About...
B. Allegations About Dr. King During Hearings on the Public Accomodations Bill...
C. The Attorney General Considers a Wiretap of Dr. King...
D. The Attorney General Voices Concern Over Continuing FBI Reports...
E. The FBI Intensifies Its Investigation of Alleged Communist Influence...
IV. Electronic Surveillance of Dr. Martin Luther King and the SCLC
A. Legal Standards Governing the FBI's Duty to Inform...
B. Wiretap Surveillance of Dr. King and the SCLC...
C. Microphone Surveillance of Dr. King...
V. The FBI's Effort to Discredit Dr. Martin Luther King: 1964
A. The FBI Disseminates the First King "Monograph"...
B. The FBI Plans Its Campaign to Discredit Dr. King: December 23, 1963
C. William Sullivan proposes a plan to promote a new negro leader...
D. FBI Headquarters Orders the Field Offices to Intensify Efforts to Discredit...
E. Steps Taken by the FBI in 1964 to Discredit Dr. King
F. The Question of Whether Government Officials Outside of the FBI Were Aware...
VI. The Hoover-King Controversy Becomes Public and a Truce is Called...
A. First Steps in the Public Controversy April--November 1964
B. Tapes are Mailed to Dr. King: November 21, 1964
C. Attempts by the FBI to "Leak" to Reporters Tape Recordings...
D. Roy Wilkins of NAACP meets with DeLoach to discuss allegations...
E. Dr. King and Director Hoover Meet: December 1, 1964
F. Civil Rights Leaders Attempt to Dissuade the FBI...
VII. The FBI Program Against Dr. King: 1965--1968
A. Major Efforts to Discredit Dr. King: 1965--1968
B. COINTELPRO Operations Against Dr. King and His Associates
C. The FBI's Efforts to Discredit Dr. King During His Last Months
D. Attempts to Discredit Dr. King's Reputation After His Death
VIII. Conclusion
The FBI's Covert Action Program to Destroy the Black Panther Party  (PDF: 2819 K)
A. The Effort to Promote Violence Between the Black Panther Party...
1. The Effort to Promote Violence Between the Black Panther Party...
2. The Effort to Promote Violence Between the Blackstone Rangers...
B. The Effort to Disrupt the Black Panther Party by Promoting Internal Dissension
1. General Efforts to Disrupt the Black Panther Party Membership
2. FBI Role in the Newton--Cleaver Rift
C. Covert Efforts to Undermine Support of the Black Panther Party...
1. Efforts to Discourage and to Discredit Supporters...
2. Efforts to Promote Criticism of the Black Panthers in the Mass Media...
D. Cooperation Between the FBI and Local Police...
The Use of Informants in FBI Domestic Intelligence Investigations  (PDF: 3536 K)
I. Introduction and Summary
A. Summary of Facts
B. Policy and Constitutional Issues Raised by...
C. The Lack of Judicial Treatment of Intelligence Informant Issues
D. The Scope of the Committee's Investigation
II. The Nature of the Intelligence Informant Technique
A. Case Histories of Particular Informants
B. Examples of Intelligence Informant Coverage of Groups...
C. Special FBI Informant Programs
D. The Use of Informants at Colleges and Universities
III. The Intelligence Informant Program--Size, Scope and Standards
A. The Number of Intelligence Informants
B. The FBI Administrative System for Intelligence Informants
C. Standards for the Use of Intelligence Informants
Warrantless FBI Electronic Surveillance  (PDF: 6618 K)
I. Introduction
II. Presidential and Attorney General Authorization for Warrantless Wiretapping
A. Pre--1940
B. 1940 to 1968
C. The Omnibus Crime Control Act of 1968
D. Justice Department Criteria for Warrantless Wiretaps: 1968--1975
III. Presidential and Attorney General Authorization for Warrantless Microphone Surveillance
A. Pre--1952
B. 1952 to 1965
C. 1965 to the Present
IV. An Overview of FBI Electronic Surveillance Practices
A. Extent of FBI Electronic Surveillance: 1940--1975
B. Requests, Approvals, and Implementation
C. The ELSUR Index
D. Congressional Investigation of FBI Electronic Surveillance Practices...
V. Warrantless FBI Electronic Surveillance of Foreign Intelligence...
A. Purpose and Value as an Investigative Technique
B. Foreign Surveillance Abuse Questions
VI. Warrantless FBI Electronic Surveillance of American Citizens
A. Electronic Surveillance Predicated on Subversive Activity
B. Electronic Surveillance Predicated on Violent Activity
C. Electronic Surveillance Predicated on Leaks of Classified Information
D. Electronic Surveillance Predicated on Other Grounds
VII. Domestic Surveillance Abuse Questions
A. Questionable and Improper Selection of Targets
B. Procedural Violations
C. Collection and Dissemination of Information Irrelevant to...
Warrantless Surreptitious Entries: FBI "Black Bag" Break-Ins...  (PDF: 1363 K)
I. Introduction
A. FBI Policy and Practice
B. The Legal Context: United States v. Ehrlichman
II. Operational Procedure, Authorization, and Targeting
A. Internal Procedure and Authorization
B. Targets: Counterintelligence and Domestic subversives
C. Operations Directed Against the Socialist Workers Party
III. FBI Policy and the Question of Authorization Outside the Bureau
A. FBI Policy: The Hoover Termination of "Black Bag Jobs"
B. Presidential and Attorney General Authorization
Appendix: Surreptitious Entries for the Installation...
The Development of FBI Domestic Intelligence Investigations  (PDF: 14948 K)
I. Introduction
A. Scope of the Report
B. Issues Presented
II. Historical Antecedents--World War I, ...
A. Pre-World War I Programs
B. Domestic Intelligence in World War I
C. The Post-War "Red Scare" and the "Palmer Raids"
D. Attorney General Stone's Reforms
III. The Establishment of a Permanent Domestic Intelligence Structure, 1936--1945
A. The 1936 Roosevelt Directive
B. The Original Legal Authority for Domestic Intelligence
C. The FBI Intelligence Program 1936--1938
D. FBI Intelligence Authority and "Subversion"
E. Congress and FBI Intelligence
F. The Scope of FBI Domestic Intelligence
G. The Custodial Detention Program
H. FBI Wartime Operations
IV. Domestic Intelligence in the Cold War Era: 1045--1963
A. The Anti-communist Consensus
B. The Post-War Expansion of FBI Domestic Intelligence
C. The Federal Loyalty-Security Program
D. The Emergency Detention Program, 1946--1950
E. The Emergency Detention Act of 1950 and...
F. The Scope of FBI "Subversion" Investigations
G. The Justice Department and FBI Intelligence Investigations
H. FBI Investigations of "Hate Groups" and "Racial Matters"
I. Legal Authority for Domestic Intelligence
J. FBI Intelligence and International Tension, 1961--1963
V. FBI Intelligence and Domestic Unrest, 1964--1974
A. Klan Intelligence
B. FBI Intelligence and the Black Community
C. COMINFIL Investigations--"Racial Matters"
D. COMINFIL Investigations--The Antiwar Movement and Student Groups
E. Civil Disturbance Intelligence
F. The Justice Department and the IDIU
G. "New Left" Intelligence
H. Target Lists and the Security Index
I. Investigations of "Foreign Influence" on Domestic Unrest
J. Intensifications After the 1970 "Huston Plan"
K. The 1971 Inspection Reports
L. The "New" Internal Security Division and Turmoil in the FBI, 1971
M. The "Administrative Index"
N. Curtailment of FBI Domestic Intelligence
O. Re-Authorization of FBI Domestic Intelligence
Domestic CIA and FBI Mail Opening Programs  (PDF: 9380 K)
Part I: Summary and Principal Conclusions
Part II: CIA Domestic Mail Opening
I. Introduction and Major Facts
II. New York City Mail Intercept Project
III. Other CIA Domestic Mail Opening Projects
Part III: Project Hunter
I. Introduction and Major Facts
II. FBI "Discovery" of the CIA's New York Mail Intercept Project: 1958
III. Requests Levied by the FBI on the CIA's New York Mail Intercept Project
IV. Product Received by the FBI from the CIA's New York Mail Intercept Project
V. Termination of the Project
VI. Internal Authorization and Controls
VII. External Authorization
Part IV: FBI Mail Opening
I. Introduction and Major Facts
II. Description of FBI Mail Opening Programs
III. Nature and Value of the Product
IV. Internal Authorization and Controls
V. External Authorizations
VI. Termination of the FBI Mail Opening Programs
VII. Legal and Security Considerations Within the FBI
CIA Intelligence Collection About Americans: CHAOS and the Office of Security  (PDF: 4069 K)
I. Introduction
C. Special Security Investigations
D. The Investigation
E. Summary of the Issues
II. History and Operation of CHAOS
A. Background
B. Authorization of CHAOS
C. The November 1967 Peace Movement Study
D. Operation of the CHAOS Program and Related CIA Projects
E. 1969 Expansion of CHAOS
F. Reduction, Limitation and Termination of CHAOS
III. Issues Raised by CHAOS and Related Projects
A. The Propriety of the CHAOS Mission
B. Domestic Intelligence Collection
C. Assistance to FBI Internal Security Investigations
D. Maintenance of Files on Americans
E. Approaches to Determining Foreign Direction of Domestic Dissent
IV. Office of Security Programs
C. Special Security Investigations
D. Issues Raised by the Office of Security Programs and Investigations
National Security Agency Surveillance Affecting Americans  (PDF: 4043 K)
I. Introduction and Summary
A. NSA's Origins and Official Responsibilities
B. Summary of Interception Programs
C. Issues and Questions
II. NSA's Monitoring of International Communications
A. Summary of the Watch List Activity
B. History
C. Types of Names on Watch Lists
D. Overlapping Nature of Intelligence Community Requests
E. Drug Watch Lists: United States--South American Intercepts
F. Termination of the Civil Disturbance Watch List Activity
G. Authorization
H. Conclusions
III. A Special NSA Collection Program: SHAMROCK
A. Legal Restrictions
B. The Committee's Investigation
C. The Origins of SHAMROCK
D. The Participation of the Companies
E. NSA's Participation
F. Termination of SHAMROCK
IV. NSA Personnel Security and Related Matters
A. Background
B. Questionable Activities
Improper Surveillance of Private Citizens by the Military  (PDF: 3982 K)
I. Introduction and Summary
A. Traditional and Legal Restraints
B. Summary of Improper Surveillance Activities
C. Effect of 1971 Departmental Directive
D. Issues Presented
E. Conduct and Scope of Investigation
F. Organization of Report
II. The Collection of Information About the Political Activities of Private Citizens...
A. Legal Authorities
B. Origins and Development of the Army's Domestic Surveillance Program
C. The Army's Domestic Surveillance Program
D. Questionable Activities on the Part of Army Agents
E. Termination of the Army's Civil Disturbance Collection Program
III. Monitoring Private Radio Transmissions in the United States: 1967--1970
A. Legal Authorities and Restrictions
B. Origins of Domestic Radio Monitoring by ASA
C. Domestic Radio Monitoring by ASA: 1967--1970
D. The Termination of Domestic Radio Intercepts
IV. Investigating Civilian Groups Considered "Threats" to the Military...
A. Investigations of Civilian Groups Within the United States
B. Investigation of Civilian Groups Overseas
V. Assisting Law Enforcement Agencies in Surveillance of Private Citizens and Organizations
A. Legal Authority
B. Nature of Assistance
VI. Current Departmental Restraints Upon Surveillance of Civilians
A. Curbing Past Abuses
B. Preventing Surveillance in the Future
VII. Current Statutory Restrictions Upon Military Surveillance
The Internal Revenue Service: An Intelligence Resource and Collector  (PDF: 6987 K)
Introduction and Summary
Summary of Results of Investigation
Introduction and Disclosure
I. The Statutory and Regulatory Setting
II. IRS Practice
III. FBI Use of Returns in COINTELPRO
IV. Disclosures to the Central Intelligence Agency
V. Analysis
Selective Enforcement for Non-Tax Purposes
I. The Historical Development of IRS Intelligence Activities
II. Selective Enforcement Against Political Activists: Special Service Staff
III. The Ideological Organizations Project
IRS Information Gathering Procedures
I. The Information Gathering and Retrieval System
II. Operation Leprechaun
National Security, Civil Liberties, and the Collection of Intelligence...  (PDF: 4984 K)
I. Introduction
A. The Scope of the Investigation
B. A Precis
C. Issues
II. Background: A Time of Turbulence
A. Frustrations in the White House
B. The Huston-Sullivan Alliance
C. The "New" Hoover
D. The Pressure of Events
III. The Meetings: The Writing of the Special Report
A. Who, What, When and Where
B. A the White House, June 5th...
C. In Hoover's Office, June 8th...
D. The Langley Meetings: Drafting the Intelligence Report
E. The Signing Ceremony
IV. An Intelligence Report for the President: The Options
A. Category One: Communications Intelligence
B. Category Two: Electronic Surveillance and Penetrations
C. Category Three: Mail Coverage
D. Category Four: Surreptitious Entry
E. Category Five: Development of Campus Sources
F. Category Six: Use of Military Undercover Agents
G. Category Seven: Budget and Manpower
H. Category Eight: Permanent Interagency Committee
I. Category Nine (Removed): Surreptitious Optical Surveillance
J. Category Ten (Removed): Investigations of Diplomatic Personnel
V. The Huston Plan
A. Huston Plan, Phase One: Advice for the President
B. Huston Plan, Phase Two: The President's Policy
VI. Recision of the Huston Plan: A Time for Reconsideration
A. The President Takes a Second Look
B. Huston Leaves the White House
VII. The Hidden Dimensions of the Huston Plan
A. Duplicity
B. Lawlessness
C. Mixed Motives
D. "Credit Card Revolutionaries"
VIII. Aftermath: The End--or the Beginning?
A. The Intelligence Evaluation Committee
B. Secret Meeting with Hoover
IX. Summary and Conclusions
A. Accountability, Authority, and the Law
B. The Quality and Coordination of Intelligence
C. Public Policy Implications
Appendix: "Chronology of Huston Plan and Intelligence Evaluation Committee"...
  (PDF: 205 K)
Staff List  (PDF: 147 K)

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Book III: Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans

Book III, the longest of the reports at 989 pages, consists of supplemental staff reports to accompany Book II. The report is divided into thirteen separate staff reports, each with its own table of contents. A sampling of the subjects includes:

•COINTELPRO: The FBI’s Covert Action Programs Against American Citizens
• Dr..Martin Luther King, Jr., Case Study
• The FBI ’s Covert Action Program to Destroy the Black Panther Party
• Use of Informants in FBI Intelligence Investigations
• Domestic CIA and FBI Mail Opening
• CIA Intelligence Collection About Americans: CHAOS Program and The Office of Security
• Improper Surveillance of Private Citizens by the Military